Thursday, June 25, 2020

Destructive Heterosexuality in Sula - Literature Essay Samples

In Sula, Toni Morrison chronicles the lives of two African-American women whose close friendship is torn apart by infidelity. In the novel, Morrison paints the relationship between the character’s leading women, Sula and Nel, as one of fulfillment, encouragement, and support. Patriarchal heterosexual relationships, by contrast, are painted as unsuccessful or damaging by restricting free will, leaving women to raise families alone, and creating competition and causing division within female friendships. According to Adrianne Rich, author of â€Å"Compulsory Sexuality and Lesbian Existence,† patriarchal heterosexual relationships should be examined as an institution much as the economic system of capitalism or the caste system of racism. Rich believes requisite patriarchal heterosexuality has been established as a means of restraining women’s unique identities and perpetuating male dominance, with the result that it â€Å"keeps numberless women psychologically tra pped, trying to fit mind, spirit, and sexuality into a prescribed script because they cannot look beyond the parameters of the acceptable. It pulls on the energy of such women† (657). Morrison mirrors Rich’s beliefs in Sula when she fabricates the male presence as a negative force in the lives of the novel’s women, where males are typically absent and marriage is seen as a job. While the novel’s two main characters, Sula and Nel, suffer a period of disconnection, both women ultimately realize that their most intimate and essential relationship is with each other. Sula and Nel become fast friends very quickly as a product, describes Morrison, of realizing at a young age that they are â€Å"neither white nor male† (52). Knowing that all freedom is forbidden to them, each girl decides to become something else; they’re able to use each other to develop. The two grow so intimate that they frequently act in tandem, performing identical tasks withou t need of speech. The author demonstrates the girls’ nonverbal collusion when Nel and Sula dig holes in the earth during a sunny summer day: in concert, the girls strip the bark off twigs and use the twigs to dig two separate holes; still not speaking, they join their two smaller holes to form a single larger hole and, when Nel’s twig snaps, both girls toss in their twigs, add bits of trash, and then fill in the hole they’ve created. When thinking about their relationship, Nel relates that â€Å"talking to Sula had always been a conversation with herself. Was there anyone else before whom she could never be foolish? In whose view inadequacy was mere idiosyncrasy, a character trait rather than a deficiency?† (95). The two girls evidence Rich’s sentiments that â€Å"woman-identification is a source of energy, a potential springhead of female power† (657). In each other, the girls find complete acceptance and an emotional rapport not evidenced in any of the heterosexual relationships in Sula. As a product of this constant intimacy with each other, Morrison reports that Sula and Nel grow content and no longer experience the need to conform to the Bottom’s expectations. For example, Nel’s mother, Helene, urges her daughter to pull her nose with a clothespin in the hopes of giving it a more â€Å"attractive† appearance; Nel performs this duty with zest but without expectation until she meets Sula, at which point she retires the clothespin permanently. As well, though Nel still endures having her hair straightened with a hot comb once a week, the affect no longer appeals to her. Morrison’s detailing of Sula and Nel’s relationship is true to Rich’s description of the benefits of female friendship. Quoting author Audre Lord, Rich writes that female comradeship is â€Å"the empowering joy which ‘makes us less willing to accept powerlessness, or those other supplied states of bein g which are not native to me, such as resignation, despair, self-effacement, depression, self-denial’ (650). Like Rich, Morrison illustrates that close female camaraderie makes it possible for the women to resist conformity.Marriage, both in Sula and in â€Å"Compulsory Heterosexuality,† is viewed as the destructive, yet inevitable, outcome of the patriarchal heterosexual mold. In detailing marriage, Morrison writes that Eva, after being hospitalized following the death of Hannah, recalls Hannah’s dream from the night before of getting married in a red dress. Eva remembers that marriage, in dreams, always means death. Morrison’s views on marriage encouraged by patriarchal heterosexuality are even more clearly expressed through Sula’s eyes:Those with husbands had folded themselves into starched coffins, their sides bulging with other people’s skinned dreams and bony regrets. Those without men were like sour-tipped needles featuring one consta nt empty eye. Those with men had had the sweetness sucked from their breath by ovens and steam kettles. Their children were like distant but exposed wounds whose aches were no less intimate because separate from their flesh. They had looked at the world and back at their children, and Sula knew that one clear young eye was all that kept the knife away from the throat’s curve. (122).From Sula’s statements, it’s apparent that Morrison feels marriage is a negative construct into which women are lured as a way of filling what they are indoctrinated to believe is an unavoidable emptiness. Rich writes in â€Å"Compulsory Sexuality† that women marry as part of the patriarchal heterosexual institution because it’s essential â€Å"in order to survive economically, in order to have children who would not suffer economic deprivation or social ostracism, in order to remain respectable, in order to do what was expected of women because coming out of ‘abn ormal’ childhoods they wanted to feel normal, and because heterosexual romance has been represented as the great female adventure, duty, and fulfillment† (654). Consistent with Rich’s theory, Morrison states that Nel’s parents have succeeded in dulling any spark of individuality from Nel in their determination for her to be viewed as well-bred, desirable wife material. Helene, in particular, is resolute in her yearning for Nel to lead a more â€Å"normal† life: having been born to a whore and raised by her grandmother, Helene is still plagued with the need to prove, to herself and others, how far she’s risen on the social ladder, even if her daughter must serve as the proof. Nel marries Jude because he makes her feel singularly needed; in Morrison’s words, â€Å"[Nel] didn’t even know she had a neck until Jude remarked on it, or that her smile was anything but the spreading of her lips until he saw it as a small miracle† (84). For his part, Jude desires to marry Nel in reaction to being emasculated by the white citizens of Medallion. Morrison conveys that the whites refuse to hire African-Americans for decent jobs despite their superior qualifications, so Jude is forced to rely on very little pay and must turn to his mother for support. To Jude’s way of thinking, marrying Nel allows him to justify his menial work; he can tell himself that he stays at his job out of necessity, to support his family. As for Sula, she encourages Nel’s marriage to Jude simply because â€Å"she thought it was the perfect thing to do following their graduation from general school† (84). When Sula supports Nel’s marriage, however, she doesn’t suspect that Nel will settle down to the conventional patriarchal role of the possessive, sympathetic wife. When Jude complains about how tough life is for a black man, for example, Sula interjects her opinion that black men seem to have a rather eas y life specifically to prevent Nel from uttering the expected â€Å"milkwarm commiseration† (103). In response to Sula’s comments, Jude sizes Sula up as â€Å"a woman roaming the country trying to find some man to burden down with a lot of lip and a lot of mouths† (103). Simply because Sula dares to voice her own beliefs, Jude becomes upset and concludes that Sula’s going to be trouble for men. After Jude leaves Nel, Morrison narrates Sula’s reflection that â€Å"she knew well enough what other women said and felt, or said they felt. But she and Nel had always seen through them. They both knew that those women were not jealous of other women; that they were only afraid of losing their jobs† (119). Instead, by the time Sula returns from ten years away at college, she discovers belatedly that Nel has changed: after Sula sleeps with Jude, Nel is unable to forgive her. Sula eventually comes to the bitter realization that â€Å"now Nel was one o f them. One of the spiders whose only thought was the next rung of the web†¦They were merely victims and knew how to behave in that role (just as Nel knew how to behave as the wronged wife)†¦Now Nel belonged to the town and all of its ways† (120). In the end, Nel is so enveloped in the town’s customs that she chides Sula for her determination to remain independent. Though Morrison narrates that Sula’s glad she lived for herself, Sula also falls for a man prior to her demise. When Sula first meets Ajax, she enjoys his company mainly because he doesn’t talk down to her like other men; a not-so-subtle critique of male condescension. Gradually, Sula feels herself developing a sense of possession over Ajax. When she makes the mistake of revealing too much of her emotions to her lover, he decides to leave. Sula realizes that she did not hold my head stiff enough when I met him and so I lost it just like the dolls (136). Morrison’s description of Sula’s self-scorn over falling for Jude shows the author’s view that females act as mindless â€Å"dolls† when pursuing a conventional heterosexual relationship; it also reveals yet another failed heterosexual connection. Further, Sula discovers that Ajax’s real name is Alan Jacks. Since she hasn’t even known his name, Sula concludes that she never knew the man at all. Their relationship represents Sula’s attempt to fall in with the heterosexual institution: the urge to conform insinuates itself so heavily that Sula constructs her own image of â€Å"Ajax;† repeatedly describing her craving to scrape off his outer layer to reveal the â€Å"gold† she’s sure lies underneath (137).Within the first three chapters of Morrison’s novel Sula, the author sketches a picture of absent boyfriends, husbands and fathers. Eva, Sula’s grandmother, is forced to raise her family alone when her husband BoyBoy abandons her. Re kus, Sula’s father and Hannah’s husband, is granted only a single sentence in the novel, when Morrison explains that he died when Sula was three; the cause of his death isn’t mentioned. Wiley, Nel’s father and Helene’s husband, is alive but rarely home. The male image doesn’t improve as the novel progresses: Jude leaves Nel after having an affair with Sula, and Sula’s boyfriend, Ajax, leaves when he suspects Sula is beginning to feel possessive of him. The consequences of the little-seen or completely absent males are exhibited in various ways. For instance, because they’re left to raise their families alone, Eva, Hannah, and Helene are unable to spend much time playing with their children. The lack of personal attention damages not only the mothers’ relationships with their daughters, but the daughters’ eventual relationships with their own children: since Helene is birthed to a lower-class whore, she feels the n eed to groom her daughter, Nel, into the perfect, docile woman as proof of how far she’s come. Nel is therefore not allowed room for imagination or other personal expression. As Rich urges in â€Å"Compulsory Sexuality,† Morrison closely scrutinizes patriarchal heterosexual relationships in Sula. Both women highlight the benefits of female companionship: when Sula and Nel are together in the beginning of the novel, Morrison relates that each is able to be her own person, express her own passions, and feel completely free, a sentiment echoed in â€Å"Compulsory Sexuality.† Morrison focuses on her belief that heterosexual relationships are an institution inflicted by males to repress females by continually stressing the failure of compulsory patriarchal heterosexual relationships and the harmful outcomes compliance exacts on women. Nel’s seduction into the patriarchal heterosexual relationship mold, for instance, costs Sula and Nel’s friendship to en d in heartbreak and leaves Nel, in particular, feeling that she’s lost a piece of herself. Similar to Rich, Morrison describes patriarchal heterosexual relationships, and the marriage touted as the ultimate goal thereof, as a leech sucking women dry of joy and leaving them empty husks continuing to live for their children’s sake. Solely through an examination of the institution of patriarchal heterosexual relationships can the pattern of male dominance, which has set the mold for all forms of abuse, be broken.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Benefits of Preparing a PowerPoint Presentation from Scratch

Benefits of Preparing a PowerPoint Presentation from Scratch Before you start working with PowerPoint, remember that the best presentation is the one done from scratch. The purpose of any presentation is to provide genuine and authentic information which is 100 percent non-plagiarized. There’s no need to overwhelm your audience with demonstration of all the software opportunities – you just have to present your ideas in clear way. There are many PowerPoint services on the web, where you can easily order presentation and it will be ready in a short period of time without any efforts of yours. You get what you want and present it at your college/university. Aren’t you supposed to feel proud and happy? The point is that real happiness and proud can be experienced only in case if the PowerPoint presentation will be done by your own hands and intellect. Follow our simple guide and you will discover the main benefits of doing PowerPoint from scratch. You have to decide if the presentation you are working on will be of entertaining, informative, persuasive or selling nature. Define what kind of approach it is recommended to use for your audience – formal or informal. It is extremely important to use the colors and clip art in strict accordance with the objective of your PowerPoint presentation. Once you have decided to do PowerPoint presentation from scratch, you get an opportunity to create custom show by means of it! When working on your presentation, you should keep it simple. Don’t forget to cut the clutter. It is advisable to use not more than one graphic image per slide. While creating your own PowerPoint presentation from scratch, never use more than six words per bullet. Use six bullets on one page. It is highly recommended to use six word slides in one row. Note that it is important to use the same fonts and colors throughout the whole presentation. Pick up the PowerPoint images of the same style.

Monday, May 18, 2020

Plan Human Resources For A Proposed Project Based On Plan

2.1. Plan human resources for the proposed project describing each roles and responsibilities and design an organizational structure for the proposed project based on plan. Introduction: Palm Tree Spa is facing issues related with Management Information System and with online reservation and booking system. Additionally, firm is unable to maintain formal and proper records of selecting structure for its project, identifying different roles of personals working at project is not that much easier as it seems. Therefore are different aspects and factors, must be considered in this regards like: Structure of Organization: In order to achieve goals and objectives and activities to be performed, business organizations are structured in different ways. In other words, business organizations have different structures to operate, some suitable types of organizational structure are summarized as under. 1. Functional Structure: Functional structures divide the organizational or management into different groups according to core activities like marketing, finance, sales and procurement and others and each group has to perform set of related activities, characterized with open communication and flexibility (Aleesha, 2014). 2. Project Structure: The project structures are structures under which specific projects lead different core areas and departments of organization, lead by project managers. Project structures are mainly characterized with simplicity while having disadvantage ofShow MoreRelatedProject Mgt- Human Resource Plan1706 Words   |  7 Pages[pic] Project Human Resource Plan Template This Project Human Resource Plan Template is free for you to copy and use on your project and within your organization. We hope that you find this template useful and welcome your comments. 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The most broad changes were made roughly 30 years back when the stadiumRead MoreScope Management Plan1122 Words   |  5 PagesManagement Plan Slow Mail Distribution Centre Recruitment Project 27 June 2011 Table of Contents 1.0 Purpose 2 2.0 Scope Management Roles and Responsibilities 2 2.1 Project Sponsor 2 2.2 Project Team 2 2.3 Project Stakeholders 2 3.0 Scope Management Planning 3 4.0 Scope Statement 3 5.0 Scope Control 3 6.0 Scope Verification 3 7.0 Approvals 4 1.0 Purpose The purpose of this Scope Management Plan is to define the scope for the Slow Mail Distribution Centre Recruitment Project. ThisRead MoreNutrigrow1239 Words   |  5 Pagescurrently operating in the province of Manitoba. The organization has been in business for 60 years and has experienced relatively slow growth, until the introduction of a new product, which turned out to be great success to large agri-businesses. Based on the new products’ success, NutriGrow has made a strategic decision to market this product internationally, with the expectation of increase business activity over the next decade. With the expectation of increase business, management has assignedRead MoreProject Management And Emotional Intelligence808 Words   |  4 PagesIntegrative Statement Project Management and Emotional Intelligence is a paradigm that when applied to the process of management implies that these milestones are predictable. When in reality, and based on the number of players and phases create an environment that the plan may experience variabilities within the acceleration or deceleration of the designed program of the project charter. The emergence of these variabilities leads to uncertainty of the project and chaotic conditions. Structural

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Role Of Reading And Writing The Achievement Of Desire,...

The role of reading and writing in the academic setting Over the semester, we have studied the importance of reading and writing across the essential studies curriculum. In our studies, we have analyzed 3 pieces of literature: Richard Rodriguez’s â€Å"the Achievement of Desire†, Lucille P. McCarthy’s a â€Å"A Stranger in Strange Lands†, and David R. Russell, and Arturo Yanez’s â€Å"’Big Picture People Rarely Become Historians’. We have used these 3 heavily cited and well known articles and narratives to sculpt our ideas around what the purpose of reading and writing in general education is. From the past several papers I have written, I have been able to compile a list of important characteristics from each individual studied in the texts, and have been able to devise my own theory of regarding reading and writing. Reading and writing are the 2 single most important activities seen in the academic setting due to their key role in modern educational learning. But why are they so important? To understand the modern educational setting, think of a quilt. Quilts are made of a large number of fabric patterns. Each pattern in this metaphor represents a different course or major. The fabrics are held together by thread. The thread is representative of reading and writing. These two activities form the structure around how we build our knowledge. Without reading and writing, learning new information would be an arduous task of memorization from verbal instructions. But with them, we allow

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Sexism in Early Civilizations Essays - 733 Words

Even in the first civilizations sexsim was very prevalent, women were not included in democracy, they were not allowed to vote, and in some earlier civilizations women were not even allowed to have a job or go outside the home. Even as a 16 year old girl in America, the supposed land of dreams, I see sexism everyday. I see it when I watch the news, I see it when I’m walking down the halls at my school, I even see it when I read novels and articles or watch a movie online. Over 60% of serious journalism roles are given to males, while the women are left with the less important, or less popular sections. In school I see boys calling girls stupid, or girls getting a pass to go to their locker because they forgot something, even though a boy†¦show more content†¦Although these were groundbreaking laws that were passed in the 21st century, we still need more. Women are still, even in the #1 country ever, of all time, in the universe, discriminated against. For every $1.00 that a man makes a women with the same job, same education and qualifications only make 77 cents. If you’re not outraged you’re not paying attention is the statement that I would use to describe this dilemma. It’s not just wage either, it’s the positions and how seriously women are taken in their field. 44% of women in the science field answer on a questionnaire that they have found it difficult to gain respect from fellow co-workers because of their sex. It doesn’t stop there either, women’s sexuality is discriminated against more than enough to raise an eyebrow. 82% of women who sexually identify as bisexual say that they have not been taken seriously by either an employer or a family member. However, only 20% of men who identify as bisexually in the same questionnaire said that they had not been taken seriously about their sex uality. Girls in other countries are denied education because they are female. 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Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (Bars) Free Essays

Question: What techniques discussed in this chapter did he seem to apply? Answer: The technique discussed in this chapter did Mr. Trump seem to apply is behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS). It is an appraisal method that aims at combining the benefits of narrative critical incidents and quantified ratings by anchoring a quantified scale with specific narrative example of good or poor performance. We will write a custom essay sample on Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (Bars) or any similar topic only for you Order Now There are five steps required to developing the BARS which the first one is write critical incidents. On this step, it is required to ask persons who know the job (jobholders and/or supervisors) to describe specific illustrations (critical incidents) of effective and ineffective job performance. The second step is develop performance dimensions which people group the incidents into five or ten dimensions and then define each of the dimension. The example of the dimension is salesmanship skills, skill in monetary transactions, bagging skills, human relation skills and so forth. The third step of developing BARS is reallocate incidents that verify these groupings and have another team of people who also know the job reallocate the original critical incidents. From the second step and the critical incidents, a cluster definition has been concluded and must reassign each incident to the cluster which is fits best. For example, 50 per cent to 80 per cent of this second team assigns it to the same cluster as did the first group. The next step is scaling the incident which the second group were rate the behavior described by the incident as to know how effective or inefficiently it represents performance on the dimension. The last step of developing BARS is developing a final instrument which chooses about six to seven of the incidents as the dimension’s behavioral anchors. However, there are some advantages when developing the behaviorally anchored rating scale. The first one is more accurate gauge which people know and do the job and its requirements better than anyone develop the BARS and finally was producing a good gauge of job performance. Secondly is has a clearer standards. The critical incidents along the scale illustrate what to look for in terms of superior performance, average performance, and so on. Meaning that, they will know how good they are in term of performance. Third advantage is getting the feedback which the critical incidents make it easier to explain the ratings to appraisees. Next advantage is it has independent dimensions. Clustering the critical incidents into five or six performance dimensions should help to make the performance dimensions more independent of one another. Lastly, consistency is the advantage where the BARS-based evaluations seem to be relatively reliable, in that different raters’ appraisals of the same person tend to be similar. How to cite Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (Bars), Papers

Compare and contrast Alexander II and Alexander III free essay sample

Although they were father and son, the reigns of Alexander II and Alexander III took off in completely different directions. Alexander II was committed to his empire by vowing to reform Russia, making it more in line with nineteenth-century western society. His son, on the other hand, was the unprepared tsar, whose actions were literally reactions to his father’s unexpected assassination. Consequently, Alexander II went down in history as much more productive in the field of domestic policy; in dealing with revolutionaries; and in his foreign policy than his son Alex III would ever be. 1855 was a tough time for Alexander II to take the throne. Russia was in the middle of a costly war which they were losing, liberals were pushing hard for reform, and nobles were in fear of losing their power. On the home front, people were looking for change, and Alexander was their best hope. In 1856, when the Treaty of Paris was signed, he gave a speech promising Russians a new era of peace. We will write a custom essay sample on Compare and contrast Alexander II and Alexander III or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page To the dismay of the nobles, Alexander also hinted towards the end of serfdom, saying that it was better â€Å"to abolish serfdom from above, than to wait until that time when it begins to destroy itself from below. † Having made multiple visits to gubernias, or provinces, he kept himself familiarized with domestic issues. Because of his many travels, he relied heavily on his advisers and used bureaucratic methods to solve enormous problems facing the nation such as emancipation, which he signed into law in 1861. Although the standard of living for peasants remained at a low, the abolishing of serfdom was a great step forward, as it let to other reforms, including the zemstva government, the opening of schools to all classes, and the easing of censorship. After the assassination of Alexander II, the liberal ministers resigned, and conservatives took their posts. This, coupled with the shock of his father’s demise, influenced Alexander III, and he became stubborn and unimaginative. His reign became known as the â€Å"Era of Counter-Reforms,† as he tried his best to undo all the liberal reforms his father had put into place. Alexander III’s stance on domestic issues came as no surprise. As a youngster, he was tutored by Konstantin Pobodonestev, a conservative, forceful man who strongly opposed Western ideology. Pobodonestev’s ideas and beliefs rubbed off on the young boy, and he blamed his father’s liberal-minded reforms as the cause for his murder. Seeking to strengthen the autocracy, he gave officials the power to declare a state of emergency, and to arrest or fine anyone unreliable. He also cleverly cut off schools by setting up discriminatory admission rules, against women, poor families, and the Jews. He then forced the expansion of Russian culture and language by forcing everyone in the nation to speak, write, and think in Russian; otherwise known as Russification. Alexander III preferred having as much control as possible over his people, something he did not have in common with his father. Despite all the work Alexander II did toward reforming Russia, the â€Å"Era of Great Reforms† left one crucial aspect unaltered: the power of the emperor. The intentional neglect of this was what kept the reforms from realizing their true potential. This led to dissatisfaction, which encouraged repression, terror, and most importantly: revolution. The first was the Polish Rebellion, caused by the failure of Russian authorities to suppress Polish nationalism. Although the Poles failed, other minorities sprung up for their voice to be heard. On April 2, 1879, a terrorist shot at but missed Tsar Alexander. These violent acts of terror split apart Russian radicals. People that approved of such actions formed an organization named the People’s Will. Those who opposed terror called themselves the Black Partition. Alexander II did little to suppress these groups, however, and eventually fell victim to members of the People’s Will, bleeding to his death on March 13, 1881. Because of the way his father was killed, Alexander III was very cautious when it came to revolutionaries. He made it very clear to his government that he wanted to rid Russia of everyone associated with revolutionary views. Alexander abandoned the plans his father had of creating a constitution, and believed that only absolute autocracy could fight the revolution. Subsequently, repressing the revolutionaries became a recurring theme for Alexander III’s reign. The Treaty of Paris, which signified the ending of the Crimean War, was Alexander II’s first important foreign-policy act. The result of the treaty was unfortunate because Russia lost important territories, and the Black Sea became neutral territory. This was a huge blow to Russian influence in that region. Russia then tried to turn things around, with the help of France. Alexander II met with Napoleon III multiple times to coordinate agreements. However, in 1863, the French emperor gave moral and diplomatic support to the Polish insurrection, which soured Franco-Russian relations. With the diplomatic assistance of Otto von Bismarck, war with France and Britain was avoided. Bismarck also helped Russia recover parts of what it lost from the Crimean War, however, Alexander was not yet content. He tried to recover the remainder of his losses: the province of Bessarabia and the influence in Turkey, but this led to the Turkish War of 1877-78. Although the war ended in disappointment because it did not increase Russian prestige in the East, Alexander II was able to recover Bessarabia. Lastly, the Treaty of San Stephano, which extended Russian influence into the Balkans, was of little benefit. The other Great Powers urged Russia to modify it at the Congress of Berlin in 1878 and as a result, Russia had less influence in the Balkans. The foreign policy of Russia underwent some major changes directed by Alexander III. Relations with Germany began to fall through because the tsar was suspicious that Bismarck was plotting hostile designs against Russia. Hence, Russia sought an alliance with France, and wanted to create a counter- alliance against the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria, and Italy. However, his unsure feeling that France would not provide stability resulted in prolonged negotiations. It was not until 1895, after Alexander III’s death, that France and Russia were referred to as allies. One could argue that both Alexander II and Alexander III did what they thought was the best for their nation. While Alexander II took to reform to modernize the country, his son based his reign solely on reactions to his father’s assassination, and carried out his policies with great caution. As a result of this, Alexander II fared better than his son in the critical areas of domestic policy, in dealing with revolutionaries, and in foreign policy. Unfortunately for both rulers, they could not imagine the eventual grand revolution that would later take place in Russia.